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Peru Facts & Figures

The most important numbers, stats, data and information about Peru in a nut shell

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Sunflower - Last Update: October 15, 2018

Below find detailed facts and numbers, data and stats, as well as lots of useful information about Peru related to the topics geography of Peru, Peruvian government & administration, Peru's national symbols, Peruvian economy, people of Peru. health & education in Peru and infrastructure & transport in Peru.

 1  General information about Peru

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is located in western South America. The country borders in the north on Ecuador and Colombia, in the east on Brazil and Bolivia, in the south on Chile and in the west on the Pacific Ocean.

Peru is the third largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina, and the 19th largest in the world.

The Peruvian territory covers an area of 1,285,216 square kilometers (496,225 square miles) and is geographically divided into three zones: the coast (“costa”), the western coastal plain with deserts, beaches and fertile valleys; the mountain region (“sierra”), the mountainous area dominated by the Andes that crosses the country in north-south-direction; and the jungle (“selva”), the eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon basin.

Even though the coastal region only accounts for about 11% of the Peruvian territory, more than half of the population (52.6%) lives in this area. The Andean region however is home to 38% of the population, whereas only 9.4% of Peruvians live in the lowland jungle.

Lima is the capital of Peru, while the neighboring, independent city of Callao with its busy port and international airport is the country’s gateway to the world.

Peruvian currency

Peruvian currency

Since 1991 the Peruvian currency is the Nuevo Sol (S/.), but was renamed Sol (S/) at the end of 2015; the currency code for the Sol is PEN. One Sol equals 100 centimos. Current coins include 5 Centimos, 10 Centimos, 20 Centimos, 50 Centimos, S/ 1, S/ 2 and S/ 5. There are banknotes for S/ 10, S/ 20, S/ 50, S/ 100 and S/ 200.

Peruvian climate

Peruvian climate

Generally speaking Peru’s climate is:

  • arid and mild in the coastal area
  • temperate to frigid in the Andes
  • warm and humid in the jungle lowlands
Flora and fauna of Peru

Flora and fauna of Peru

  • Peru is home to 84 of the world's 103 ecosystems
  • The country is among the five most important centers in the world for genetic resources of plants and animals
Time zone in Peru

Time zone in Peru

GMT -5

Telephone dialing code for Peru

Telephone dialing code for Peru

+ (51)

Web page / internet abbreviation for Peru

Web page / internet abbreviation for Peru

.pe

.com.pe

Electricity in Peru

Electricity in Peru

220V / 60Hz

 2  Geography of Peru

Location of Peru

Location of Peru

Western South America at the Pacific Ocean

Neighboring countries of Peru

Neighboring countries of Peru

  • North: Ecuador (border of 1420 km) and Colombia (border of 1800 km)
  • East: Brazil (border of 2995 km) and Bolivia (border of 1075 km)
  • South: Chile (border of 171km)
  • West: Pacific Ocean (coastline of 2414 km)
Peru's surface area

Peru's surface area

  • Total: 1,285,216 km² (496,224.5 sq mi)
  • Land: 99.6%
  • Water: 0.4%
Peruvian terrain types

Peruvian terrain types

  • 11.7% "Costa" - Western coastal plain with deserts, beautiful beaches and fertile valleys
  • 28.4% "Sierra" - Mountainous area dominated by the Andes that runs through the country in north-south direction
  • 59.9% "Selva" - Eastern lowland jungle of the Amazon basin
Elevation extremes in Peru

Elevation extremes in Peru

  • Lowest point: Bayóvar Depression -34 m (-112ft)
  • Highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m (22,205 ft)
Longest rivers in Peru

Longest rivers in Peru

  • Rio Ucayali 1,771 km (1100 miles)
  • Rio Marañón 1,414 km (879 miles)
  • Rio Putumayo 1,380 km (858 miles)
  • Rio Yavarí 1,184 km (736 miles)
  • Rio Huallaga 1,136 km (707 miles)
  • Rio Urubamba 862 km (536 miles)
  • Rio Mantaro 724 km (450 miles
  • Rio Amazon 713 km (443 miles)
Lakes in Peru

Lakes in Peru

Peru has more than 12,000 lakes and lagoons that were created by glaciers and tectonic movement. Most lakes are on the eastern slopes of the Andes mountains.

The largest lake in Peru is Lake Titicaca in southern Peru bordering Bolivia. It covers 36,180 hectares (89,403 acres). With a surface elevation of 3,812 m (12,507 ft) it’s the highest navigable lake in the world and additionally by surface area and volume the largest lake in South America.

The second largest lake is Lake Junin, followed by the Arapa Lagoon.

Tallest waterfalls in Peru

Tallest waterfalls in Peru

  • Tres Hermanas (three sisters) waterfall in the Junin region with 914 m (3,000 ft)
  • Yumbilla waterfall in the Amazonas region with 896 m (2,938 ft)
  • Gocta waterfall in the Amazonas region with 771 m (2,531ft)
Natural hazards in Peru

Natural hazards in Peru

Main Peruvian cities (estimated population according to INEI 2016)

Main Peruvian cities (estimated population according to INEI 2016)

  • Lima Metropolitana: 9,866,647 citizens
  • Arequipa: 869,351 citizens
  • Trujillo: 799,550 citizens
  • Chiclayo: 600,440 citizens
  • Iquitos: 437,376 citizens
  • Piura: 436,440 citizens
  • Cusco: 427,218 citizens
  • Chimbote: 371,012 citizens
  • Huancayo: 364,725 citizens
  • Tacna: 293,119 citizens
  • Juliaca: 273,882 citizens
  • Ica: 244,399 citizens
  • Cajamarca: 226,031 citizens
  • Pucallpa: 211,651 citizens
Main ports of Peru

Main ports of Peru

  • Pacific: Callao, Matarani, Paita, Salverry, Chimbote, Pisco, Ilo
  • Amazon basin: Iquitos, Pucallpa and Yurimaguas

 3  Peruvian government & administration

Official country name of Peru

Official country name of Peru

República del Perú - Republic of Peru

Form of government in Peru

Form of government in Peru

Constitutional Republic

Capital of Peru

Capital of Peru

Lima

Independence of Peru

Independence of Peru

28th July 1821 (from Spain)

Peruvian constitution

Peruvian constitution

Latest 29th December 1993, last amended 2015

Legal System in Peru

Legal System in Peru

Based on a civil law system

Executive branch

Executive branch

  • Chief of state: President Martin Vizcarra (since 2018)
  • Head of government: President Martin Vizcarra (since 2018)
  • Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and led by the Prime Minister
  • Elections: President elected by popular vote for 5 years
Legislative branch

Legislative branch

  • Unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru with 130 seats.
  • Members are elected by popular vote for a five-year term
Judicial branch

Judicial branch

Supreme Court of Justice. Judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

Political parties (with seats in the Peruvian congress 2016 - 2021)

Political parties (with seats in the Peruvian congress 2016 - 2021)

  • Fuerza Popular (Popular Force) headed by Keiko Fujimori: 73 seats.
  • Frente Amplio (Broad Front) led by Verónika Mendoza: 20 seats.
  • Peruanos por el Kambio (Peruvians for Change): 18 seats.
  • Alianza para el Progreso (Alliance for Progress) led by César Acuña: 9 seats.
  • Acción Popular (Popular Action) headed by Alfredo Barnechea: 5 seats.
  • APRA (Peruvian Aprista Party) led by former president Alan García Pérez: 5 seats.
Administrative Divisions of Peru

Administrative Divisions of Peru

Peru is divided into 24 regions (“departmentos”) and 2 provinces: Amazonas, Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacuhco, Cajamarca, Province of Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Ica, Junín, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima region, Province of Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali.

Each region has its own government with a president and council, while the province of Lima is governed by a city council.

 4  Peru’s national symbols

Peru’s National Anthem - Himno Nacional del Perú

Peru’s National Anthem - Himno Nacional del Perú

Peru’s national anthem was composed by José Bernardo Alcedo shortly after the Peruvian independence. While since then the lyrics of the “Marcha Nacional” (the National March) were rewritten several times, they tell the story of a proud and free nation.

Listen to the Peru’s National Anthem in Spanish and Quechua on our page The Peruvian National Anthem.

Peru’s National Flags & Coat of Arms

Peru’s National Flags & Coat of Arms

  • Peru’s national flag is the “Bandera Nacional”. It has three equal, verticals bands in red, white and red. The red symbolizes the bloodshed during the struggle for Peru's independence and the bravery of the men fighting for freedom, while the white stands for peace and justice
  • The Peruvian state flag, called “Pabellón Nacional”, is only used during official state businesses or by Peruvian state institutions. It has the same tri-band red and white stripes as the National Flag; but includes in the central white band includes the Peruvian Coat of Arms, the so called “Escudo de Armas”.
  • The Peruvian Coat of Arms consists of the national shield (the Escudo Nacional) which features a vicuña (Peru's national animal) on the upper left, a chinchona tree (native to the tropical Andes region and the source for the anti-malaria drug quinine) on the upper right and a cornucopia filled with coins on the bottom. These images represent Peru's fauna, flora and mineral wealth. The shield is topped with a Holm oak Civic Crown and surrounded by a palm branch on the left and a laurel branch on the right that are tied together with a red and white ribbon.
  • The war flag of Peru is the Bandera De Guerra. Used only by the Armed Forces and National Police the war flag has the same tri-band red and white stripes as the national flag and the state flag, but includes in the central white band the national shield flanked by Peruvian flags instead of the palm and laurel branches used on the state flag.
Peru’s “unofficial” national symbols

Peru’s “unofficial” national symbols

  • National colors: red and white
  • National animal: Vicuña
  • National bird: Andean Cock-of-the-rock
  • National flower: Cantulope, also known as Flor de Inca (flower of the Inca)
  • National instrument: Cajón
  • National drinks: Pisco Sour and Inka Cola
  • National dish: Ceviche

 5  Peruvian economy

Peruvian economy - World positioning

Peruvian economy - World positioning

The Peruvian economy is the 39th largest in the world and is classified by the World Bank as upper middle income.

GDP in Peru (BCRP / IMF)

GDP in Peru (BCRP / IMF)

  • GDP: US$ 215 billion  in 2017 (Peruvian Central Reserve Bank 2018)
  • GDP growth rate 2017: 2.5% (Peruvian Central Reserve Bank 2018)
  • GDP growth rate past 10 years: 4% (2016), 3.3% (2015), 2.4% (2014), 5.8% (2013), 6% (2012), 6.5% (2011), 8.5% (2010), 1% (2009), 9.1% (2008), 8.5% (2007) (Peruvian Central Reserve Bank 2018)
  • GDP (PPP) total: US$$450.148 billion (IMF estimate 2018)
  • GDP (PPP) per capita: US$ 13,993 (IMF estimate 2018)
  • GDP (nominal) total: US$ 259.879 billion (IMF estimate 2018)
  • GDP (nominal) per capita: US$ 7,199 (IMF estimate 2018)
GDP by sector (INEI 2017)

GDP by sector (INEI 2017)

  • Manufacture: 6.5%
  • Agriculture: 6%
  • Construction: 5.1%
  • Transport & courier service: 5%
  • Mining: 4.4%
  • Public administration: 4.3%
  • Services provided to companies: 4.2%
  • Finances and insurances: 3.2%
  • Hospitality: 2.9%
  • Telecommunications: 2.6%
  • Electricity, gas, water: 1.7%
  • Fishery: 0.7%
  • Commerce: 0.2%
  • Other services: 14.9%
  • Import duties and other taxes: 8.3%
Inflation Rate in Peru (BCRP 2018)

Inflation Rate in Peru (BCRP 2018)

  • Inflation rate 2017: 1.4%
  • Inflation rate for the past 10 years: 3.2% (2016), 4.4% (2015), 3.2% (2014), 2.9% (2013), 2.6% (2012), 4.7% (2011), 2.1% (2010), 3% (2009), 6.7% (2008), 3.9% (2007)
Peruvian net international reserves (BCRP 2018)

Peruvian net international reserves (BCRP 2018)

US$ 63.621 billion

Labor and employment in Peru (INEI 2018 - data for the year 2017)

Labor and employment in Peru (INEI 2018 - data for the year 2017)

  • Labor Force nation: 16.6 million
  • Labor Force Lima: 4.8 million
  • Unemployment rate nation: 5%
  • Unemployment rate Lima: 8.1%
  • Underemployment rate nation: 45.7%
  • Underemployment rate in Lima: 34.3% (10.6% underemployed by hours and 23.7% underemployed by income)
  • Formal employment: 26.8%
  • Informal employment: 73.2%
  • Minimum wage: S/ 930 (since April 2018)
  • Average wage nation: S/ 962
  • Average wage in urban areas: S/ 1,534.70
  • Average wage in Lima: S/ 1,687.20
Poverty in Peru (INEI 2018 - data for the year 2017)

Poverty in Peru (INEI 2018 - data for the year 2017)

  • Poverty rate Peru: 21.7%
  • Poverty in urban areas 15.1% - urban costal regions 15.0%, urban highlands 16.3% and urban jungle areas 20.5%; Lima 13.3%
  • Poverty in rural areas 44.4% - rural costal regions 24.6%, rural highlands 48.7% and rural jungle areas 41.4%
  • Extreme poverty rate: 3.8% - in urban areas 1.2%, in rural areas 12.8%, Lima 0.7%
Natural resources in Peru

Natural resources in Peru

Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, natural gas, hydro-power.

Industries in Peru

Industries in Peru

Mining and refining of minerals, steel, metal fabrication, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing.

Agriculture in Peru

Agriculture in Peru

Asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mango, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, dairy products, fish, guinea pigs.

Exports from Peru (data for 2017)

Exports from Peru (data for 2017)

  • US$ 44.9 billion (BCRP 2018)
  • Products: copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver, crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, coffee, asparagus, and other vegetables, fruits, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys (INEI 2018)
  • Mayor export partners: China and USA (together 43.1%), Switzerland, South Korea, India, Japan, Spain, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands (Lima Chamber of Commerce 2018)
Imports to Peru (data for 2017)

Imports to Peru (data for 2017)

  • US$ 38.7 billion (BCRP 2018)
  • Products: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunications equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines (INEI 2018)
  • Major import partners: China, USA, Germany, Brazil, Mexico, Ecuador, Columbia, Chile, Argentina and Spain (Lima Chamber of Commerce 2018)

 6  People of Peru

Population in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Population in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • Population: 31,237,385
  • 49.2% men; 50.8% women
  • Population density: 25 persons per km² (64 persons per square mile)
  • Population growth: 1%
Population distribution in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Population distribution in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • Coast: 58%
  • Highlands: 28.1%
  • Amazonian lowlands: 13.9%
  • Urban areas: 79.3%
  • Rural areas: 20.7%
Age distribution in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Age distribution in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • 0-14 years: 26%
  • 15-59 years: 62%
  • 60 years and over: 12%
  • Median age: 28 years
Ethnic groups in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Ethnic groups in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

In the 2017 population census Peruvians were asked to ethnically identify themselves for the first time. Below numbers are the results of this self-identification.

  • 60.2% Mestizo (mixed native American and white)
  • 22.3% Quechua
  • 5.9% White
  • 3.6% Afro-Peruvians
  • 2.4% Aymara
  • 5.6% indigenous or natives from the Amazonian lowlands, Nikkei (Japanese-Peruvian), Tusan (Chinese-Peruvian) and others
Languages in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Languages in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • Spanish (official) spoken by 82.6% of the population
  • Quecha (official) spoken by 13.9% of the population
  • Aymara (official) spoken by 1.7% of the population
  • A large number of indigenous Amazonian languages spoken by 0.8% of the population
  • Other foreign languages spoken by 0.2% of the population
Religions in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Religions in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • 76% Roman Catholics
  • 14.1% Evangelical Protestants
  • 4.8% others
  • 5.1% none

 7  Health & education in Peru

Health in Peru (INEI 2018)

Health in Peru (INEI 2018)

  • Life expectancy of women: 76 years
  • Life expectancy of men: 71 years
  • Life expectancy total population: 74 years
  • Infant mortality rate 17 deaths / 1000 live births
  • Death rate 6 deaths / 1000 citizens
  • Birth rate 18 births / 1000 citizens
  • Malnourished children under 5 years 10.4% (according to NCHS), 14.4% (according to WHO)
  • An estimated 66,200 people live with HIV /AIDS
  • Population with health insurance nation (public or private): 75.5%; from these 44.4% have SIS (Seguro Integral de Salud), 24.8% EsSalud and 5.1% others (private, military, police)
  • Population with health insurance in urban areas (public or private): 73.5%; from these 39.7% have SIS (Seguro Integral de Salud),  27.9% EsSalud and 7.2% others (private, military, police)
  • Population with health insurance in rural areas (public or private): 83.2%; from these 76.9% have SIS (Seguro Integral de Salud), 5.8% EsSalud and 0.4% others (private, military, police)
  • Population with chronic disease 33.9% - urban areas 35.8%; rural areas 27.6%
  • Population with any kind of disability 10.4%
  • from these 48.3% are visually impaired, 15.1% have difficulties walking, 7.6% are hearing impaired, 4.2% have learning difficulties and 3.1% are speech impaired
Major Infectious Diseases in Peru (CIA Factbook 2016)

Major Infectious Diseases in Peru (CIA Factbook 2016)

  • Food or waterborne diseases: Bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and typhoid fever
  • Vector borne disease: Dengue fever and Oroya fever; Zika
Education in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Education in Peru (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • Literacy: 94.2% of the Peruvian population age 15 and older can read and write
  • Peruvian students attend school for an average of 10.1 years
  • 5 % of the adult population has no formal education
  • 19,5% of the adult population has a primary or lower level education
  • 41.3 % of the adult population has a secondary education
  • 14.3% of the adult population has a tertiary education (no university)
  • 19.7% of the adult population has a university education
  • 85% of Peru's students attend public schools
  • 15% of Peru's students attend private schools

 8  Infrastructure & transport in Peru

Access to basic infrastructure (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Access to basic infrastructure (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • 79.3% of households are connected to the public water supply; 91.5% in urban areas, 67.8% in rural areas
  • 7.3% of households depend on underground wells
  • 4.7% of households use public wells
  • 4.5% of households get water from rivers and spings
  • 4.2% of households depend on water trucks
  • 66.6% of households are connected to the public wastewater system; 86.9% in urban areas, 40.3% in rural areas
  • 17.1% of households use a soakaway
  • 6.7% of households have to dump their wastewater in rivers, open fields or outdoors
  • 5.6% of households use a latrine
  • 4% of households have a septic tank
  • 87.7% of households are connected to electricity; 98.9% in urban areas, 78.8% in rural areas
Communication and Media (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

Communication and Media (INEI 2018 - data from census 2017)

  • 21.9% of households have a fixed telephone line
  • 83.8 % of households in Peru have a cell phone - Lima 94.3%; urban areas 93.8%; rural areas 77.8%
  • 37.6% of the population has cable TV - Lima 58.6%; urban areas 34.8%, rural areas 9.1%
  • 32.6% of the population has a PC at home
  • 28% of households are connected to the internet
  • 50.5% of the population has access to internet - Lima 74.1%; urban areas 51.3%; rural areas 15.6%
Airports in Peru (CIA Factbook 2013)

Airports in Peru (CIA Factbook 2013)

  • 191 airports in Peru; from these 59 airports with paved runways
  • 5 heliports
Railways in Peru (CIA Factbook 2014)

Railways in Peru (CIA Factbook 2014)

  • 1,854.4 km of railway tracks in Peru (1152.27 Miles)
  • 1730.4 km with standard gauge (1074.97 Miles)
  • 124 km with narrow gauge (77.05 Miles)
Roads in Peru (CIA Factbook 2012)

Roads in Peru (CIA Factbook 2012)

140,672 km (87.409 Miles) of roads in Peru; from these 18,699 km (11.619 Miles) are paved.

Waterways in Peru (CIA Factbook 2013)

Waterways in Peru (CIA Factbook 2013)

8808 km (5.473 Miles) of Waterways in Peru

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